Grid-Interactive Efficient Buildings CharacteristicsIn states across the nation, the electricity system is changing, presenting challenges and opportunities for the delivery of reliable, clean, and affordable power to America’s homes, businesses, and institutions. As variable renewable generation and distributed energy resources (DERs)—including energy efficiency, demand response, onsite generation, energy storage, and electric vehicles—grow, the management of electricity is becoming more complex.

Fortunately, advancing technologies open the prospect for more flexible management of building and facility energy loads to benefit occupants, owners, and the grid. The purpose of advancing Grid-interactive Efficient Buildings (GEBs) and, more broadly, demand flexibility (DF) is to optimize energy management by utilizing sensors, analytics, and smart controls to best serve the needs of occupants while considering the grid and external conditions (such as peak loads and weather). Greater optimization of the significant energy demand and supply functions that buildings offer – on an automated basis – has far reaching electricity policy and regulatory implications for State Energy Offices, Public Utility Commissions, utilities, building owners and occupants, technology and service providers, and and investors. Flexible load management can:

  • Lower costs, enhance resilience, and reduce emissions
  • Reduce peak loads, moderate the ramping of demand, and provide grid services
  • Enhance energy efficiency and integrate distributed and renewable energy resources.

The fundamental question that arise from this opportunity are:

  • How can we optimize facility interactions with the grid?
  • How can states fashion policies, programs, and regulations to advance such optimization through GEBs?
  • What are the roles for states, facility owners and operators, utilities, product and service providers, and others?

To help states approach these questions, the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) and the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) established the NASEO-NARUC Grid-interactive Efficient Building Working Group, with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Office.

Through the GEB Working Group, State Energy Officials and state utility regulators can explore GEB/DF technologies and applications; identify opportunities and impediments (technical and non-technical); identify and express state priorities and interests; inform policy, planning, programs and regulation; consider unregulated electric sector investments and implications; and advance GEB/DF road map and pilot options.

GEB Working Group activities include state interviews, webinars, and exchanges. Private sector and non-governmental organizations are also being engaged. A state GEB briefing paper and other resources have been and are being developed developed. The resources page also includes links to other NASEO, NARUC, and external papers, presentations, webinars, and other items. NASEO and NARUC are partnered with DOE and the National Laboratories to provide demand flexibility/GEB-related technical assistance (TA) to Working Group states. TA focus areas have included state and public buildings, pilot projects, state and regional GEB/DF potential, and valuation of GEB/DF grid services. Please contact with questions.

National GEB Roadmap: U.S. DOE, A National Roadmap for Grid-interactive Efficient Buildings (May 2021)

U.S. DOE, Connected Communities (overview presentation)

NASEO, "Demand Flexibility and Grid-interactive Efficient Buildings 101" (September 2022)



  • Upcoming forums are limited to state Working Group members.Please contact with questions

    • Next NASEO-NARUC GEB Working Group Forum planned for Match 15, 2023, 3:00 - 4:30 pm ET. Details pending.

    • Related events of interest:

      • NASEO Virtual Roundtable: State Efforts to Enhance Energy Storage RD&D January 25, 2023, 2:00 p.m. – 3:00 p.m. ET This virtual roundtable will be an opportunity to discuss state policy and market needs and how they align with federal investments in energy storage RD&D. U.S. DOE will share information on how states can support federal activity to enhance energy storage RD&D, followed by remarks from NYSERDA on New York’s Energy Storage Roadmap. State attendees will then have an opportunity to ask questions and share relevant updates, Please register for the roundtable here and email Kelsey Jones ( with any questions.

      • NASEO-NARUC Webinar: Grid Investments and Technologies Necessary for FERC Order 2222 January 27, 2023, 2:00 p.m. – 3:00 p.m. ET To implement FERC Order 2222, state and federal policy makers and regulators are evaluating and determining whether and where to establish new rules and requirements as well as enabling policies to bring both distributed energy resources (DERs) and their aggregations onto the electricity system safely, fairly, and reliably. Underpinning these decisions are the technological requirements for enabling DER aggregation. As part of the NASEO-NARUC Distributed Energy Resources Integration and Compensation Initiative, this webinar will highlight a new report on this topic being developed by the GridWise Alliance. Modeled after their recently released Technology Portfolio Report. This webinar will be an opportunity for Public Utility Commission and State Energy Office staff to ask questions as well as highlight specific needs in understanding these technologies more fully. To register, please click here.


  • NASEO-NARUC GEB Working Group Forum: Cybersecurity and Demand Flexibility/GEB/DERs January 18, 2023. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory experts presented on cybersecurity aspects of demand flexibility and distributed energy resources (presentation). Among resources presented: Facility Cybersecurity resources.

  • Connecticut Innovative Energy Solutions (IES) Program is a statewide initiative to identify, pilot, and scale innovative ideas that enable a decarbonized, affordable, and equitable electric grid for Connecticut. With "regulatory sandbox" characteristics, the Program will provide resources and support for the implementation of innovative pilot projects over the course of a 12-to-18-month period. Successful pilots will have the opportunity to be deployed at scale in Connecticut. The IES Program presents an exciting opportunity for third-party innovators and technology developers to establish collaborative partnerships with Connecticut’s two investor-owned EDCs, Cycle 1 will focus on demand-side flexibility (January 24  Information Session ; January 31 formal solicitation release; March 1 concept papers due -- see program page for information).

  • Virtual Power Plant Partnership (VP3), led by the Rocky Mountain Institute with private sector partners, is dedicated to understanding the opportunities—and challenges—of the VPP market, including the roles that DERs and demand flexibility can play in decarbonizing and stabilizing the grid. See also the RMI Virtual Power Plants, Real Benefits report.

  • California Load Flexibility Research and Development Hub (CalFlexHub) and Symposium held December 6 & 7, 2022 exploring current innovations in load flexibility across California (recordings available).

  • Working Group Members – 28 States


    Twenty seven states through their State Energy Offices and/or Public Utility Commissions are members of the Working Group.

    The GEB Working Group state co-chairs are:

    • Liz Reichart, Senior Energy Policy Specialist, Washington State Department of Commerce (NASEO member)
    • Ashley Norman, Utility Analyst, Hawaii Public Utilities Commission (NARUC member)

    Working Group States:

    • Arkansas
    • Arizona
    • California
    • Colorado
    • Connecticut
    • Florida
    • Georgia
    • Hawaii
    • Idaho
    • Illinois
    • Maryland
    • Massachusetts
    • Michigan
    • Minnesota
    • Mississippi
    • Nebraska
    • New Jersey
    • New York
    • Oregon
    • Pennsylvania
    • South Carolina
    • Tennessee
    • Utah
    • Vermont
    • Virginia
    • Washington
    • Wisconsin
    • Wyoming


    NASEO contacts: Rodney Sobin, Ed Carley, Jasmine Xie,  or

    NARUC contact: Danielle Sass Byrnett 

  • Resources and More Information

    • GEB resources, including past webinars
    • NASEO-NARUC GEB State Interviews
    • GEB Working Group Technical Assistance (participation limited to Working Group states, contact or Rodney Sobin or Jasmine Xie for information):